All about Hungary: Historical porcelains of Zsolnay, Herend & Hollohazi

Historical porcelains of Zsolnay, Herend & Hollohazi

Posted on Mar 22, 2010| | | No comments:
Porcelain industry and handicrafts are historical and traditional in Hungary. The most famous and most expensive one is from Herend, however i prefer Zsolnay because of some creamy colour based sets and Hollohazi because of its lightness and fineness.


Porcelain of Herend 

The Herend Porcelain Manufactory (Hungarian: Herendi Porcelánmanufaktúra Zrt.) is a Hungarian manufacturing company, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain. Founded in 1826, it is based in the town of Herend near the city of Veszprém.
In the mid-19th century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. Many of its classic patterns are still in production.
After the fall of Communism in Hungary the factory was privatised and is now 75% owned by its management and workers. As of 2006, the factory is profitable and exports to over 60 countries of the world. Its main markets are the USA, Japan, Italy and Russia.

History 

The factory at Herend was founded in 1826 by Vince Stingl as an earthenware pottery manufacturing factory, but also he had been carrying out research experiments on porcelain making. Stingl ran out of funds and subsequently went bankrupt, his creditor Mór Fischer took control of the factory in 1839. The new owner of the manufactory, Mór Fischer, being very ambitious and having new ideas, started artistic porcelain manufacturing in the same year. At that time it was almost impossible to replace broken pieces and supply old, classical porcelain dinner-sets from the Far East and from Europe, but Mór Fischer's efforts met the support of the Hungarian aristocracy already in 1840.
The artistic demand, the effort of manufacturing the first true pieces in Herend succeeded in a very short time. The First Hungarian Applied Art Exhibition, the Vienna Exhibition in 1845, the Great Exhibition in London, 1851, the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations in New York, 1853 and the Exposition Universelle in Paris, 1855, brought the highest appreciation for Herend. This appreciation appears in the orders made on behalf of several royal courts (Queen Victoria, Francis Joseph I., Maximillian, Mexican emperor etc.).
The name of well-known patterns refer to the first customers (Queen Victoria, Esterházy, Batthyány, Rothschild, Apponyi). In 1865 Francis Joseph I gave noble title to Mór Fischer, appreciating his results and work in porcelain art. From 1872 Mór Fischer Farkasházy, Purveyor to the Royal Court, was entitled to use the shapes and patterns of the Manufactory of Vienna, which had closed down. That was the first golden age of Herend.
In 1874 Mór Fischer gave the management of the manufactory to his sons. After this, the level of production started to decline, due to repressing the artistic aspests. The factory had several owners, and went almost bankrupt as a result of withdrawing from the artistic aspects. Development came only at the end of the century, when the grandson of the founder, Jeno Farkasházy, became the owner of the factory. Jeno Farkasházy was a trained ceramist, who gained experience in foreign factories and wanted to follow the founder's concepts. Having excellent taste, he gave new life to traditions and in addition, introduced novelties in 1900 Paris, and 1901 St. Petersburg.
Between the two world wars, limited reproduction of traditional products, from the age of Mór Fischer, was continued. Hungarian figures were also manufactured, after the work of the best Hungarian sculptors.
In 1948 the Manufactory was nationalized and owned by the communist State. In 1993 it was privatised and 75% of the Porcelain Manufactory is now owned by the management and workers. The mission of the Herend Porcelain Manufactory Ltd. is to maintain its position as a profitable enterprise on the leading edge of production of hand-crafted luxury porcelain goods of outstanding quality, nurturing the history and traditions of artisanship, providing a secure, longterm workplace for its skilled employees.


Porcelain of Zsolnay
Zsolnay, or formally Zsolnay Porcelánmanufaktúra Zrt (Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture) is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles, and stoneware. The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics.

History

The Zsolnay factory was established by Miklós Zsolnay (1800 - 1880) in Pécs, Hungary, to produce stoneware and ceramics in 1853. In 1863, his son, Vilmos Zsolnay (1828 - 1900) joined the company and became its manager and director after several years. He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the 1873 World Fair in Vienna, then at the 1878 World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix. In 1893, Zsolnay introduced porcelain pieces made of eosin. Tádé Sikorski (1852 - 1940) married Vilmos’ daughter Júlia and became the chief designer. In 1900 Vilmos’ son Miklós took over. Frost-resisting Zsolnay building decorations were used in numerous buildings specifically during the art nouveau movement. By 1914, Zsolnay was the largest company in Austro-Hungary. During World War I production of pottery and building materials were curtailed, and the factory produced for military use, for instance insulators. After WW1 the fortunes of the factory declined due to the Serbian occupation, loss of markets, and difficulty to secure raw materials. However after the depression, conditions improved. During World War II] its site of production in Budapest was bombed. With the rule of communism the factory was nationalized in 1948. Eventually, the Zsolnay name was dropped. The Pécsi Porcelángyár (Pécs Porcelain Factory) was used primarily to produce common tableware goods. However, in 1982 with the resumption of a market economy, the company regained its operational independence, was reorganized, and the Zsolnay name returned. In 1991, the Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture became a stock company, and five years later it was bought by a private equity enterprise. In September 2008 a contract was concluded with the Swedish company, IKEA. According to the contract, Zsolnay will deliver 5,000 tons of china products per year from september 2009. This deal will triple the sales of Ft 1,1 billion (€4,4 million)for Zsolnay.
Beside the factory, there is also the Zsolnay Museum in Pécs.

The roof of the Fine Art Palace in Mexico City is made by Zsolnay porcelain


...also the roof of St Mathias church in Budapest...



...also the roof of Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest... and so on...





The Museum of Zsolnay



Porcelain of Hollohazi

Official website (only in Hungarian) : http://www.hollohazi.hu/




Sources :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herend_Porcelain_Manufactory
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zsolnay

Suggestions :
http://www.herend.com/en/aktualis/
http://www.zsolnay.hu/Eng/2index.htm
http://www.hollohazi.hu/

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